A complete table of the data is available from Leo Shapiro (email@example.com), Sam Droege (firstname.lastname@example.org), or the refuge biologist.
Below is a table of the site numbers and the brief site description.
|EBFNWR Site 1||5591|
|EBFNWR Site 2||5592|
|EBFNWR Site 3||5593|
|EBFNWR Site 4||5594|
Below is a table of the results by site:
These 4 fields are located on the mainland side of the refuge in fields near or adjacent to the Sound's salt marshes. You can see the marsh influence in the presence of Ptilothrix bombiformis, a hibiscus specialist. You can also clearly see the influence of very deep sand deposits in the presence of Colletes mitchelli and its nest parasite Epeolus lectoides. Both of these species only occur in dune systems or in sandhill areas such as those found at Carolina Sandhills NWR and as such they are quite uncommon and localized. It's interesting to see that they occur in the open fields on the mainland side away from the actual dune line. These occurrences provide strong support, in our opinion, for keeping these fields open.
The map below shows records in yellow for Epeolus lectoides and in blue for Colletes mitchelli.
Here is Epeolus cruciger taken by Nigel Jones in the U.K. to give you a feel for what Epeolus looks like.
Numbers of bees were on the low side and there was less uniformity among the lists of species from the different fields compared to some of the other refuges, but it's not obvious how to interpret this.
Sam and Leo
Happy insect! what can be
In happiness compared to thee?
Fed with nourishment divine,
They dewy morning's gentle wine,
Nature waits upon thee still,
And thy verdant cup does fill;
'Tis filled wherever thou dost tread,
Nature's self thy Ganymede